文章摘要
减氮对引黄灌区春玉米氮素吸收利用和淋失的影响
Effect of nitrogen reduction on nitrogen uptake and leaching of spring maize in the Yellow River irrigation area
投稿时间:2023-04-27  修订日期:2023-07-12
DOI:10.13254/j.jare.2023.0270
中文关键词: 春玉米,引黄灌区,减氮,产量,氮素淋失
英文关键词: spring maize, Yellow River irrigation area, nitrogen reduction, yield, nitrogen leaching
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(U20A20113);宁夏回族自治区重点研发专项(2019BBF02007,2021BEG02002,2022CMG02007);宁夏自然科学基金项目(2023AAC03433);农业高质量发展和生态保护科技创新示范课题(NGSB-2021-11)
作者单位E-mail
王英 宁夏农林科学院农业资源与环境研究所, 银川 750002  
刘汝亮 宁夏农林科学院农业资源与环境研究所, 银川 750002
国家农业环境银川观测实验站, 银川 750002 
ruliang_liu@126.com 
王芳 宁夏农林科学院农业资源与环境研究所, 银川 750002  
洪瑜 宁夏农林科学院农业资源与环境研究所, 银川 750002  
冒辛平 宁夏农林科学院农业资源与环境研究所, 银川 750002  
马建森 宁夏大学农学院, 银川 750002  
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中文摘要:
      为探究不同减氮水平下春玉米产量及氮素吸收利用和氮素淋失损失特征,为宁夏引黄灌区春玉米氮肥合理施用提供理论依据,本研究于 2021—2022年在宁夏引黄灌区基于渗漏池进行了连续两年的田间定位试验,以先玉 1225为供试玉米品种,设置了5个氮水平,施氮量分别为常规施氮420 kg·hm-2 (N-420)、减氮14.29%(N-360)、减氮35.71%(N-270)、减氮57.14%(N-180)、不施氮处理(CK),对春玉米产量、氮素吸收利用和氮素淋失损失量进行测定分析。两年数据均表明,农户常规施肥与减氮14.29% 处理籽粒产量没有显著差异(P<0.05),减氮 35.71% 处理较常规施肥处理产量降低。2021年减氮 35.71%、减氮 14.29% 处理较常规施肥处理籽粒产量分别降低了 8.60%和 3.59%,2022年减氮 35.71%处理籽粒产量较常规施肥处理降低 11.46%,而减氮14.29%处理与常规施肥处理相比籽粒产量增加1.42%。氮肥表观利用率、氮肥农学效率、地上部氮素收获指数两年数据均显示减氮 35.71% 处理高于减氮 14.29% 处理和常规施肥处理。氮肥偏生产力随着施氮量的增加逐渐降低,与减氮 57.14% 处理相比,减氮35.71%、减氮14.29%和常规施肥处理分别降低19.57%、33.81%、42.59%。总氮淋失量随施氮量的增加而升高,减氮35.71%、减氮 14.29% 处理总氮淋失损失量较常规施氮处理降低 42.51% 和 18.09%。各处理氮素淋失中,硝态氮是主要形式,占总氮的45.50%~54.68%。相关性分析表明,施氮量与总氮淋失量呈正相关,随着施氮量的增加,总氮淋失量呈指数型增加(R2=0.998 6)。研究表明,与常规施氮量相比,减少35.71%施氮量下,春玉米产量平均减少10.03%,总氮淋失量平均降低42.51%,氮肥表观利用率、农学效率和偏生产力均提高。综合考虑认为,施氮270 kg·hm-2可作为协调引黄灌区春玉米产量和环境安全的合理选择。
英文摘要:
      The study aimed to investigate yield characteristics, nitrogen uptake, and leaching losses of spring maize under different levels of nitrogen reduction and to provide a theoretical basis for the reasonable application of nitrogen fertilizer to spring maize in the Ningxia Yellow River irrigation area. A field experiment was conducted for two consecutive years from 2021 to 2022 in the Ningxia diversion irrigation district. The experiment used Centaur 1225 as the maize test variety in a seepage pond. Five nitrogen levels with nitrogen applications of 420 kg·hm-2(N-420), 14.29%(N-360), 35.71%(N-270), 57.14 %(N-180)N reduction, and no N application treatments (CK), were included in the study. The yield, nitrogen uptake and utilization, and N leaching losses of spring maize were measured and analyzed. No significant difference(P<0.05)was observed in crop yield between crops grown under conventional fertilizer application and those grown under 14.29% N reduction treatment. A reduction in yield was observed under 35.71% N reduction treatment compared with conventional fertilizer treatment. Compared with the conventional fertilizer application treatment, 35.71% N reduction and 14.29% N reduction treatments reduced grain yield in 2021 by only 8.60% and 3.59%, respectively. In 2022, 35.71% N reduction reduced grain yield by 11.46% whereas 14.29% N reduction treatment increased the seed yield by 1.42% compared with the conventional fertilizer treatment. The utilization and agronomic efficiency of N fertilizer and the above-ground nitrogen harvest index data for both years showed that they were higher for the 35.71% N reduction treatment than the 14.29% N reduction and the conventional fertilizer treatments. Moreover, the N fertilizer bias productivity gradually decreased with increasing N application. Compared with the bias productivity of 57.14% N reduction treatment, the corresponding values for 35.71% N reduction, 14.29% N reduction, and conventional fertilizer treatments decreased by 19.57%, 33.81%, and 42.59%, respectively. The apparent leaching coefficient of nitrogen fertilizer increased with the increase of nitrogen application, and the total nitrogen leaching losses were reduced by 42.51% and 18.09% in the 35.71% and 14.29% N reduction treatments, respectively, compared with the losses in the conventional nitrogen application treatment. Under each treatment, nitrate-nitrogen was the main form of nitrogen leaching, accounting for 45.50%-54.68% of the total leached nitrogen. Correlation analysis between nitrogen application and total nitrogen leaching losses showed that they were positively correlated, and the total nitrogen leaching losses increased exponentially(R2=0.998 6)with the increase of nitrogen application. Compared with conventional N application, a 35.71% reduction in N application reduced spring maize yield by 10.03% and N leaching by 42.51%, which improved the agronomic efficiency and biased productivity of N fertilizer. Hence, N application of 270 kg·hm-2 can be a reasonable choice to reconcile the yield and environmental safety of spring maize in the Yellow River irrigation area.
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