文章摘要
海藻酸增效尿素对夏玉米氮素吸收利用及氮肥损失的影响
Effects of alginic acid-enhanced urea on nitrogen absorption,utilization,and loss of summer maize
投稿时间:2023-07-15  修订日期:2023-09-14
DOI:10.13254/j.jare.2023.0463
中文关键词: 海藻酸增效尿素,夏玉米,氮肥利用率,氮肥残留,氮肥损失
英文关键词: alginic acid-enhanced urea, summer maize, nitrogen use efficiency, nitrogen residues, nitrogen loss
基金项目:“十三五”国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFD0200402)
作者单位E-mail
孟凡龙 土肥资源高效利用国家工程实验室, 山东农业大学资源与环境学院, 山东 泰安 271018  
李絮花 土肥资源高效利用国家工程实验室, 山东农业大学资源与环境学院, 山东 泰安 271018 lixh@sdau.edu.cn 
王韬虎 土肥资源高效利用国家工程实验室, 山东农业大学资源与环境学院, 山东 泰安 271018  
刘文琪 土肥资源高效利用国家工程实验室, 山东农业大学资源与环境学院, 山东 泰安 271018  
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中文摘要:
      针对玉米氮肥施用量大、利用率低、环境负荷日益严重的现状,本研究以活性海藻酸为增效剂,对普通尿素进行改性增效,开展海藻酸增效尿素对夏玉米产量形成、氮素吸收利用及损失的调控作用研究,为实现氮肥减量、提高氮肥利用率、降低环境负荷提供理论依据。本试验以夏玉米为供试作物,采用 15N同位素示踪技术与田间试验结合的方法,以不施尿素为对照,共设置7个处理:CK(不施尿素)、U(普通尿素)、AU1(0.5%海藻酸增效尿素)、AU2(2.5%海藻酸增效尿素)、AU3(5.0%海藻酸增效尿素)、U-N(普通尿素减量 20%)、AU2-N(2.5%海藻酸增效尿素减量 20%)。采用一次性施肥方式,并在施肥后测定氨挥发和氧化亚氮排放量。结果表明:海藻酸增效尿素在1 038 cm-1左右出现糖类C—OH伸缩振动,且在3 426~3 325 cm-1范围和1 584 cm-1的NH2、1 450 cm-1和1 143 cm-1处的C—N振动峰强度增大;常量处理中,施用海藻酸增效尿素使玉米平均增产5.04%,氮素积累量平均增加13.55 kg·hm-2,氮肥利用率平均提高4.63个百分点;减量处理中,U-N处理没有显著减产,AU2-N处理玉米产量较AU2处理增产 2.30%,氮肥利用率提高 7.16 个百分点;与 U 处理相比,AU1、AU2 处理 0~60 cm 土壤中氮素残留量分别增加了 2.94、8.21 kg·hm-2;海藻酸增效尿素可减少氧化亚氮排放和淋洗等其他途径氮损失,与普通尿素处理相比,常量海藻酸增效尿素处理氮肥损失率平均降低6.16个百分点,与U-N处理相比,AU2-N处理氮肥损失率降低9.95个百分点。在本试验条件下,综合考虑玉米产量、氮素吸收利用、残留及损失,2.5%海藻酸增效尿素减量施用20%可以取得较好效果。
英文摘要:
      Given the present situation of high nitrogen fertilizer application, low utilization rate, and increasing environmental problems on maize, active alginic acid was selected as a synergist to modify and enhance urea and carried out the regulation of alginate acid-enhanced urea on yield formation, nitrogen absorption, utilization and loss of summer maize, in order to provide a theoretical basis for realizing nitrogen fertilizer reduction, improving nitrogen use efficiency and reducing environmental load. Summer maize was used as the test crop, and 15N isotope tracing technology was combined with field trials in this experiment. Seven treatments were set up:no urea application (CK), urea(U), 0.5% alginic acid-enhanced urea(AU1), 2.5% alginic acid-enhanced urea(AU2), 5.0% alginic acid-enhanced urea (AU3), 20% reduction of standard urea(U-N), 2.5% alginic acid-enhanced urea reduction 20%(AU2-N). One-time fertilization was adopted, and ammonia volatilization and nitrous oxide emissions were measured after fertilization. The results show that the carbohydrate C—OH stretching vibration of alginic acid-enhanced urea was observed at about 1 038 cm-1, and the intensity of NH2 vibration peak increased in 3 426-3 325 cm-1 range and at 1 584 cm-1, and C—N vibration peak at 1 450 cm-1 and 1 143 cm-1. In constant treatment, applying alginic acid-enhanced urea could increase maize yield by an average of 5.04%, nitrogen accumulation increased by an average of 13.55 kg·hm-2, and nitrogen use efficiency increased by an average of 4.63 percentage points. In reduction treatments, the yield of the U-N treatment was not significantly reduced, but the yield of the AU2-N treatment was 2.30% higher than that of the AU2 treatment, and the nitrogen use efficiency increased by 7.16 percentage points. Nitrogen residues in 0-60 cm soil increased by 2.94 and 8.21 kg·hm-2 in AU1 and AU2 treatments, respectively, compared with the U treatment. Alginic acid-enhanced urea could reduce the loss of nitrous oxide emission and leaching, and an average of 6.16 percentage points reduction rate of nitrogen fertilizer loss from constant alginic acidenhanced urea compared with U treatment and 9.95 percentage points for the AU2-N treatment compared with the U-N treatment. Under the experimental conditions, considering maize yield, nitrogen absorption and utilization, residue, and loss, 2.5% alginic acid-enhanced urea application with 20% reduction can achieve better results.
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