文章摘要
化肥有机替代对连作花生产量和根瘤固氮的影响
Effects of organic fertilizer substituting chemical fertilizer on yield and nitrogen fixed by root nodules of continuous cropping peanut
投稿时间:2023-07-18  修订日期:2023-09-28
DOI:10.13254/j.jare.2023.0469
中文关键词: 蚓粪,生物有机肥,花生产量,结瘤特性,根瘤固氮潜力
英文关键词: vermicompost, bio-organic fertilizer, peanut yield, nodule properties, nitrogen fixation potential of nodules
基金项目:中央引导地方科技发展资金项目(2023JH6/100100035);辽宁省“揭榜挂帅”科技攻关专项计划课题(2021JH1/1040003902);中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(XDA28090202);辽宁省农业科学院基本科研业务费计划项目(2021HQ1907);辽宁省农业科学院学科建设计划项目(2022DD062010)
作者单位E-mail
张勇勇 沈阳农业大学土地与环境学院, 沈阳 110866  
冯良山 辽宁省农业科学院耕作栽培研究所, 沈阳 110161 fenglsh@163.com 
赵凤艳 辽宁省农业科学院耕作栽培研究所, 沈阳 110161 zfysyau@163.com 
摘要点击次数: 786
全文下载次数: 523
中文摘要:
      为了探究蚓粪和生物有机肥部分替代化肥对连作花生产量和氮素吸收固定的影响,通过花生两年连作定位试验,设置蚓粪替代化肥处理(VM)、生物有机肥替代化肥处理(BF)、单施化肥处理(CF)3个施肥处理,另设不施肥处理(CK)作为对照,研究化肥有机替代对花生产量和氮素吸收利用的影响。结果表明,VM处理可以提高花生收获指数和植株干物质积累,VM、BF处理的花生产量较 CK 分别提高 63.18%、33.51%。CF 处理显著降低了根瘤数和根瘤鲜质量,降幅分别为 18.78%~50.82% 和 24.29%~34.74%,BF和VM处理较CF处理根瘤数、根瘤鲜质量分别提高53.20%和69.56%、63.90%和66.31%。BF和VM的根瘤固氮酶活性分别是CK的1.16倍和1.20倍,是CF的1.15倍和1.19倍。施肥处理的花生籽粒、叶、茎、根的氮素含量和氮素积累量均高于CK,其中,VM处理最高,BF处理次之。花生氮素分配比率表现为籽粒大于叶、茎、根。VM提高了根瘤固氮酶潜力和氮素向籽粒分配比率的同时降低了氮素向根的分配比率,而 CF结果相反。VM的氮肥农学效率分别是 BF和 CF处理的 1.85倍和 5.08倍。VM(5.02kg·kg-1)和BF(4.11 kg·kg-1)的氮肥偏生产力显著高于CF(3.43 kg·kg-1)和CK(3.08 kg·kg-1),与CF和BF相比,VM表现出了更强的氮素吸收利用能力。综合来看,蚓粪替代化肥后增强了花生光合同化产物转化为经济产品的能力,表现出较强的产量优势。单施化肥表现出明显的“氮阻遏”效应,而有机肥(特别是蚓粪)替代化肥后具有缓解“氮阻遏”的作用,主要归因于蚓粪替代化肥可通过提高花生根瘤固氮酶活性来保持根瘤的固氮潜力,并改变花生植株氮素分配,最终使花生植株氮素吸收利用能力增强。
英文摘要:
      This study investigated the effect of substituting chemical fertilizer with vermicompost and bio-organic fertilizer under equal amounts of N, P2O5, and K2O levels on peanut yield, nitrogen absorption, and fixation under continuous cropping. A two-year experiment was conducted in the long-term continuous cropping field of peanuts, including four treatments, such as vermicompost substituting chemical fertilizer(VM), bio-organic fertilizer substituting chemical fertilizer(BF), NPK chemical fertilizer(CF), and no fertilizer treatment as control(CK). The effect of organic fertilizer substituting chemical fertilizer on peanut yield and nitrogen uptake and utilization were studied. The results showed that VM treatment significantly increased peanut plants' harvest index and dry matter accumulation. The peanut yield of VM and BF treatments increased by 63.18% and 33.51% compared with CK. CF significantly reduced nodules' number and fresh mass by 18.78%-50.82% and 24.29%-34.74%, respectively. Compared with CF, BF and VM increased the number of nodules by 53.20% and 69.56%, and fresh mass of nodules by 63.90% and 66.31%, respectively. The nitrogenase activity of BF and VM was 1.16 and 1.20 times that of CK and 1.15 and 1.19 times that of CF, respectively. The nitrogen content and nitrogen accumulation of peanut grain, leaf, stem, and root under fertilization treatment were higher than CK, among which VM treatment was the highest, followed by BF treatment. The nitrogen allocation ratio of peanuts was higher in grain than in leaf, stem, and root. VM increased the nitrogenase fixation potential of peanut nodules and the nitrogen allocation ratio to the grain but decreased the nitrogen allocation ratio to the root, while CF showed the opposite effect. The agronmic efficiency of nitrogen fertilizer of VM was 1.85 and 5.08 times that of BF and CF, respectively. partial factor productivity from applied nitrogen of VM(5.02 kg·kg-1)and BF(4.11 kg·kg-1)was significantly higher than that of CF(3.43 kg·kg-1)and CK(3.08 kg·kg-1). Compared with CF and BF, VM showed stronger nitrogen uptake and utilization capacity. In summary, vermicompost substituting chemical fertilizer treatments enhanced the ability to convert peanut photosynthetic products into economic products, showing a stronger yield advantage. NPK chemical fertilizer showed a pronounced“Nmin inhibitory effect”while organic fertilizer (especially vermicompost) substituting chemical fertilizer treatments could alleviate the“Nmin inhibitory effect”which was mainly attributed to the fact that vermicompost substituting chemical fertilizer treatments could maintain the nitrogen fixation potential of nodules by increasing the nitrogenase activity of nodule, and changed the nitrogen allocation of peanut plants, and finally enhanced the nitrogen uptake and utilization capacity of peanut p
HTML   查看全文   查看/发表评论  下载PDF阅读器
关闭