MathJax.Hub.Config({tex2jax: {inlineMath: [['$', '$'], ['\$', '\$']]}}); 秸秆还田配施石灰对水田土壤铜、锌、铅、镉活性的影响
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 农业资源与环境学报  2017, Vol. 34 Issue (3): 215-225

#### 文章信息

NI Zhong-ying, SHEN Qian, ZHANG Ming-kui

Effects of Crop Straw Returning with Lime on Activity of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd in Paddy Soil

Journal of Agricultural Resources and Environment, 2017, 34(3): 215-225
http://dx.doi.org/10.13254/j.jare.2016.0305

### 文章历史

1. 桐庐县农业和林业技术推广中心, 浙江 桐庐 311500;
2. 浙江大学环境与资源学院, 浙江 杭州 310058

Effects of Crop Straw Returning with Lime on Activity of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd in Paddy Soil
NI Zhong-ying1, SHEN Qian2, ZHANG Ming-kui2
1. Agricultural and Forestry Technology Promotion Center of Tonglu County, Tonglu 311500, China;
2. College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China
Abstract: Crop straw returning is an important measure for increasing soil carbon fixation and soil fertility in China, but it also may result in some risk of raising activity of heavy metals in the soil. In order to understand the effects of different sources of crop straw on heavy metals activity in soil with different pollution levels, and to take appropriate measures to prevent the activation of heavy metals in the soil, both pot and field experiments were carried out to study the effects of crop straw returning with lime on activity of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd in paddy soil. The experiments were carried out in the soils with both light and heavy pollution of heavy metals. In the pot experiment, three straws, including rice straw with heavy pollution of heavy metals, rice straw with light pollution of heavy metals, and rape straw with light pollution of heavy metals, were tested. Two dosages of lime (0 kg·hm-2 and 750 kg·hm-2) were applied. Field experiment had three treatments, ie., control without application of straw and lime, straw returning and straw returning + lime. Soil available heavy metals, accumulation of heavy metals in rice grain, and chemical forms of soil heavy metals were dynamical monitored. The results showed that crop straw returning increased significantly the concentrations of dissolved organic carbon and water soluble heavy metals in paddy soils at the early stage of experiment (in first 20 days). The increase in water soluble heavy metals in the soil with heavy pollution of heavy metals was most obvious as compared with the control treatment. After 60th day of the experiment, the effects of straw returning on the activity of heavy metals in the soil decreased gradually with the time, and became no obvious. The concentrations of water soluble heavy metals in the soil treated with rape straw was generally lower than that of rice straw, while those in the soil treated with heavy pollution of rice straw was higher than low pollution of rice straw. The results of both pot and field experiments showed that the accumulation of Cd in rice grains could be slightly increased by application of rice straw with heavy pollution. However, application rice straw or rape straw with slight pollution had little effects on the accumulation of Cd in rice grain. The effects of all three tested straws on the accumulation of Pb, Cu and Zn in rice grains were not obvious. The content of soil water soluble heavy metals and heavy metals accumulation in rice grain could be significantly reduced by the application of lime. It was suggested that the rice straw returning should be controlled in the field with heavy pollution of heavy metals. When returning straw to the field, it was better to cooperate with the application of lime.
Key words: straw returning     heavy metal pollution     food safety     straw returning with lime

1 材料与方法 1.1 供试材料

1.2 盆栽试验

1.3 田间试验

1.4 分析方法

2 结果与分析 2.1 秸秆还田对土壤中DOC的影响

2.2 秸秆还田与施用石灰对土壤中水溶性重金属含量的影响

2.3 秸秆还田与施用石灰对土壤有效态重金属含量的影响

2.4 秸秆还田对土壤重金属化学形态的影响

2.5 秸秆还田对水稻产量和籽粒中重金属积累的影响

3 讨论

4 结论

（1）秸秆还田对土壤重金属的影响因土壤重金属污染程度、还田秸秆种类及还田时间的不同有所差别。秸秆还田初期可显著增加了水田土壤中DOC与水溶性重金属的含量，水溶性重金属含量以重度污染土壤增幅较为明显。随着秸秆还田时间的增加对土壤重金属的活性的影响逐渐变得不明显。

（2）油菜秸秆中因含丰富的巯基化合物，其还田后土壤中水溶性重金属含量低于水稻秸秆还田。

（3）除重污染水稻秸秆还田可轻微增加水稻籽粒中镉的积累外，秸秆还田对水稻籽粒铅、铜、锌积累的影响不明显，轻度污染水稻秸秆还田与油菜秸秆还田对水稻籽粒镉积累的影响也较小。

（4）秸秆还田配施石灰可显著降低土壤中水溶性重金属的含量，降低水稻籽粒中重金属的积累。