文章摘要
基于还田视角的人粪尿处理研究进展
Research progress regarding human feces and urine treatments from the perspective of return-to-field applications
投稿时间:2022-09-19  修订日期:2022-10-10
DOI:10.13254/j.jare.2022.0652
中文关键词: 人粪尿,还田,绿色农业,堆肥,生物炭,水热炭化,鸟粪石沉淀
英文关键词: human feces and urine, return-to-field, green agriculture, composting, biochar, hydrothermal carbonization, struvite precipitation
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2018YFC1903206);中央高校基础科研业务费专项(FRF-AT-20-03)
作者单位E-mail
李天昕 北京科技大学能源与环境工程学院, 北京市工业典型污染物资源化处理重点实验室, 北京 100083  
翁锐 北京科技大学能源与环境工程学院, 北京市工业典型污染物资源化处理重点实验室, 北京 100083  
徐新朋 中国农业科学院农业资源与农业区划研究所, 北京 100081  
程世昆 北京科技大学能源与环境工程学院, 北京市工业典型污染物资源化处理重点实验室, 北京 100083 chengshikun@ustb.edu.cn 
杨朕 南京师范大学化学与材料科学学院, 江苏省物质循环与污染控制重点实验室, 南京 210023  
李勇 北京科技大学能源与环境工程学院, 北京市工业典型污染物资源化处理重点实验室, 北京 100083  
李子富 北京科技大学能源与环境工程学院, 北京市工业典型污染物资源化处理重点实验室, 北京 100083  
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中文摘要:
      人粪尿中含有丰富的有机物和N、P、K等矿质营养物质,还田利用不仅可有效降低污水处理系统污染负荷,而且可代替部分化肥,促进绿色农业的发展。然而人粪尿直接还田存在环境风险,且尚未形成标准化处理模式。本文基于还田视角,归纳总结了国内外人粪尿还田技术的应用现状,结合人粪尿的特性,阐述了人粪尿主要处理技术的还田效应以及安全性,并且对各种技术进行了安全评估和比较。结果表明,厌氧消化、好氧堆肥技术在无标准规范下处理人粪不能保证还田的安全性,制备生物炭基肥还田具有安全可靠、减少农业碳排放等环境效益,水热炭化技术处理含水率较高的人粪具有独特的优势。尿液经储存还田仍存在微污染物风险,鸟粪石沉淀技术具有很好替代潜力,其他技术均停留在微污染物去除和营养物质回收的研究阶段。本文提出了人粪尿还田面临的问题和挑战,以及未来的研究方向,以期为人粪尿还田技术的合理选择和标准化、规范化研究提供参考。
英文摘要:
      Human feces and urine are rich in organic matter and mineral nutrients such as N, P, and K. Applying these in the field not only reduces the pollution load of sewage treatment systems, but also replaces some fertilizers to promotes the development of green agriculture. However, the direct application of human feces and urine in agriculture has environmental risks and has not yet formed a standardized treatment model. From the perspective of applying feces and urine to the field, this study presents a summary of the current situation locally and internationally. Considering the characteristics of human feces and urine, the effectiveness and safety of the main waste treatment technologies are expounded, and the safety of various technologies is evaluated and compared in this study. The results show that anaerobic digestion and aerobic composting technology cannot guarantee the safety of applying human feces in the field without standard specifications. The preparation of biochar-based fertilizer has environmental benefits such as improved safety, reliability, and the reduction of agricultural carbon emissions, and hydrothermal carbonization technology has unique advantages in treating human feces with high moisture content. There is still a risk of micro-pollutants in urine applied to the field after storage; while struvite precipitation technology has good replacement potential, other technologies are still in the research stage regarding micro-pollutant removal and nutrient recovery. The problems and challenges as well as future research directions are proposed, and this study provides a reference for the reasonable selection, standardization, and normalization of the human feces and urine reuse technology.
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