文章摘要
生草覆盖及配合化肥减量对柑橘园地表径流氮磷流失的影响
Combined effects of living mulch and fertilizer reduction on nitrogen and phosphorus runoff loss in a citrus orchard
投稿时间:2023-03-19  修订日期:2023-04-24
DOI:10.13254/j.jare.2023.0169
中文关键词: 生草覆盖,化肥减量,柑橘园,地表径流,氮磷流失风险期,暴雨施肥耦合期
英文关键词: living mulch, fertilizer reduction, citrus orchard, runoff, nitrogen and phosphorus loss risk period, rainstorm and fertilization coupled period
基金项目:国家自然科学基金联合基金项目(U21A2025);湖北省农业科技创新中心项目(2021-620-000-001-015)
作者单位E-mail
程子珍 湖北省农业科学院植保土肥研究所, 国家农业环境潜江观测实验站, 湖北省农业面源污染防治工程技术研究中心, 农业农村部潜江农业环境与耕地保育科学观测实验站, 武汉 430064  
范先鹏 湖北省农业科学院植保土肥研究所, 国家农业环境潜江观测实验站, 湖北省农业面源污染防治工程技术研究中心, 农业农村部潜江农业环境与耕地保育科学观测实验站, 武汉 430064  
夏颖 湖北省农业科学院植保土肥研究所, 国家农业环境潜江观测实验站, 湖北省农业面源污染防治工程技术研究中心, 农业农村部潜江农业环境与耕地保育科学观测实验站, 武汉 430064 xiayinghappy105@163.com 
刘冬碧 湖北省农业科学院植保土肥研究所, 国家农业环境潜江观测实验站, 湖北省农业面源污染防治工程技术研究中心, 农业农村部潜江农业环境与耕地保育科学观测实验站, 武汉 430064  
谭勇 湖北省农业生态环境保护站, 武汉 430070  
严昶 湖北省农业生态环境保护站, 武汉 430070  
樊丹 湖北省农业生态环境保护站, 武汉 430070  
廖贵新 宜都市农业农村局, 湖北 宜都 443300  
胡磊磊 宜都市农业农村局, 湖北 宜都 443300  
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中文摘要:
      为探讨柑橘园生草覆盖及配合化肥减量对地表径流氮磷流失的影响,本研究于2014—2021年在湖北清江流域开展了连续7年的野外径流小区监测试验。在自然降雨条件下设置清耕对照(CK)、生草覆盖(KF)和生草覆盖配合化肥减量(BMP)3个处理,探讨生草覆盖及生草覆盖配合化肥减量对柑橘园周年及主要时期的地表径流量、氮磷流失量、氮磷浓度的影响。结果表明:与CK相比,KF和BMP处理均能显著降低柑橘园中的总氮(TN)和总磷(TP)流失量,且BMP处理效果更好,其中,KF处理TN和TP流失量分别降低48.2%和50.0%,BMP处理TN和TP流失量分别降低54.2%和57.1%,BMP对氮磷流失量的削减效果主要是生草覆盖所起的作用。与CK相比,KF和BMP处理径流量分别减少了44.3%和50.1%,产流系数分别降低了3.3个百分点和3.8个百分点;KF处理地表径流中TN和TP浓度分别降低了11.0%和14.1%,BMP处理地表径流TN和TP浓度分别降低了11.9%和18.8%。柑橘园氮磷流失风险期为4—8月,在6—7月暴雨施肥耦合期,BMP处理减排效果最好,TN和TP流失量分别降低了54.6%和64.4%,但仅比KF处理分别高2.7个百分点和6.9个百分点。研究表明,生草覆盖和生草覆盖配合化肥减量均能显著削减柑橘园地表径流氮磷流失量和地表径流量,且主要是通过生草覆盖降低地表径流量实现削减氮磷流失量,在氮磷流失风险期和暴雨施肥耦合期采取生草覆盖配合化肥减量措施能有效减少柑橘园地表径流氮磷流失。
英文摘要:
      To investigate the effects of living mulch combined with fertilizer reduction on surface runoff nitrogen and phosphorus loss in citrus orchards, field runoff monitoring experiments were consecutively conducted in the Qingjiang River basin for 7 years from 2014 to 2021. Three treatments were set:clean-tillage control(CK), living mulch(KF), and living mulch combined with fertilizer reduction(BMP) under natural rainfall conditions. The effects of living mulch and living mulch combined with fertilizer reduction on nitrogen and phosphorus runoff losses and the concentration of nitrogen and phosphorus in runoff were studied in a citrus orchard. Compared with CK, KF, and BMP significantly reduced total nitrogen(TN)and total phosphorus(TP)losses, and BMP produced better results. KF reduced TN and TP losses by 48.2% and 50.0%, respectively, while BMP reduced them by 54.2% and 57.1%, respectively. Thus, the reducing effects of BMP on nitrogen and phosphorus losses were mainly caused by living mulch. Compared with CK, KF and BMP reduced runoff by 44.3% and 50.1%, respectively, and the runoff coefficients decreased by 3.3 and 3.8 percentage points, respectively. At the same time, KF decreased the concentrations of TN and TP losses by 11.0% and 14.1%, respectively, and BMP by 11.9% and 18.8%, respectively. The high-risk period for nitrogen and phosphorus loss was from April to August, and BMP had the greater effect on TN and TP losses, reducing them by 54.6% and 64.4%, respectively, during the rainstorm–fertilization period from June to July. However, these reductions were only 2.7 and 6.9 percentage points higher, respectively, than those provided by KF. The results demonstrated that living mulch and living mulch combined with fertilizer reduction can both significantly decrease nitrogen and phosphorus runoff losses, and that living mulch reduced nitrogen and phosphorus losses by decreasing runoff. Therefore, using living mulch or living mulch combined with fertilizer reduction measures can efficiently reduce nitrogen and phosphorus loss during the high-risk and rainstorm–fertilization periods in citrus orchards.
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