文章摘要
硅和硒肥叶面调控对水稻镉铅吸收积累的影响
Effects of silicon and selenium fertilizer on Cd and Pb uptake and accumulation in rice
投稿时间:2022-09-22  修订日期:2022-11-17
DOI:10.13254/j.jare.2022.0666
中文关键词: 镉,铅,硅,硒,叶面调控,农田,水稻
英文关键词: cadmium, plumbum, silicon, selenium, leaf regulation, farmland, rice
基金项目:安徽省科技重大攻关项目(17030701053)
作者单位E-mail
胡婧怡 农田生态保育与污染防控安徽省重点实验室, 安徽农业大学资源与环境学院, 合肥 230036  
陶荣浩 农田生态保育与污染防控安徽省重点实验室, 安徽农业大学资源与环境学院, 合肥 230036  
周晓天 农田生态保育与污染防控安徽省重点实验室, 安徽农业大学资源与环境学院, 合肥 230036  
张慧敏 农田生态保育与污染防控安徽省重点实验室, 安徽农业大学资源与环境学院, 合肥 230036  
胡含秀 农田生态保育与污染防控安徽省重点实验室, 安徽农业大学资源与环境学院, 合肥 230036  
高羽欣 农田生态保育与污染防控安徽省重点实验室, 安徽农业大学资源与环境学院, 合肥 230036  
谢君豪 农田生态保育与污染防控安徽省重点实验室, 安徽农业大学资源与环境学院, 合肥 230036  
马友华 农田生态保育与污染防控安徽省重点实验室, 安徽农业大学资源与环境学院, 合肥 230036 yhma2020@qq.com 
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中文摘要:
      为深入探讨硅和硒肥叶面调控对镉铅污染农田水稻安全性的影响,通过田间试验,设置硅和硒肥叶面调控处理,单次用量均为1.5 L·hm-2,加水稀释400倍后,在水稻生长的分蘖期、抽穗期和灌浆期进行硅和硒肥叶面调控,研究其对镉铅污染农田水稻产量、糙米镉铅含量、镉铅吸收转运及糙米氮磷钾含量的影响。结果表明,抽穗期和灌浆期均喷施硅肥较对照显著增产4.49%,叶面喷施硒肥处理较对照显著增产3.21%~5.08%(P<0.05)。抽穗期和灌浆期均喷施硅(33.64%)或硒(34.67%)降低镉铅的效果显著高于抽穗期或灌浆期单次喷施(P<0.05),分蘖期、抽穗期和灌浆期3个生育时期喷施硅或硒肥与2个生育时期喷施相比则差异不显著(P>0.05)。喷施硅肥或硒肥2次及以上均能够使糙米镉含量降至国家标准(GB 2762—2022)限值以下(<0.2 mg·kg-1),喷施1次能够使糙米铅含量降至标准限值以下(<0.2 mg·kg-1)。稻谷糙米中镉铅含量随喷施次数的增加而降低。硅和硒肥叶面调控能够降低水稻植株对镉铅的富集能力,镉铅富集系数降幅分别为10.86%~27.00%和4.35%~69.57%。硅和硒肥叶面调控可降低水稻植株中镉铅向糙米转运的能力,进而降低糙米镉铅含量。硅和硒肥叶面调控处理糙米中硅和硒含量分别为2.227~2.550 mg·kg-1和0.145~0.176 mg·kg-1,均较对照显著提升(P<0.05),在水稻不同生育时期喷施叶面硅或硒肥2次及以上对糙米氮磷钾含量提升效果更为显著(P<0.05)。综合分析,在水稻抽穗期和灌浆期叶面喷施硅或硒肥共2次均能够将糙米中镉铅含量降至国家标准限值以下,同时能够提高糙米中氮磷钾的含量,且具有可操作性和较高的经济效益。
英文摘要:
      To study the safety of silicon and selenium fertilizer leaf regulation on rice polluted with cadmium and plumbum, the field experiment was set with silicon and selenium fertilizer leaf surface regulation treatment at the single dosage of 1.5 L·hm-2, after adding water to dilute 400 times. The silicon and selenium fertilizer leaf surface regulation test is carried out at the tillering stage, heading stage and filling stage of rice growth. The effects of cadmium and plumbum pollution on rice yield, concentration in brown rice, absorption and transport in different parts of rice, and nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium concentration in brown rice were studied. The results showed that the yield with spraying silicon fertilizer twice at the heading and filling stage was 4.49% higher than that compared with the control. Foliar selenium fertilizer treatment could significantly increase yield by 3.21%–5.08%, compared with the control(P<0.05). The effect of spraying silicon(33.64%) or selenium(34.67%) twice at heading stage and filling stage for reducing cadmium and plumbum was significantly higher than that of single spraying only at heading stage or filling stage(P<0.05). According to the national standard for food safety(GB 2762—2022), spraying silicon fertilizer or selenium fertilizer twice or more can make the cadmium concentration in brown rice reach the standard(<0.2 mg·kg-1), and spraying once can make the plumbum concentration in brown rice reach the standard(<0.2 mg·kg-1). The concentration of cadmium and plumbum in brown rice decreased with the increase in spraying times. Leaf control of silicon and selenium fertilizer could reduce the enrichment capacity of cadmium and plumbum in rice plants, and the reduction of cadmium and plumbum enrichment coefficient was 10.86%-27.00% and 4.35%-69.57%, respectively. The leaf surface regulation of silicon and selenium fertilizer can reduce the cadmium and plumbum concentration in brown rice by reducing the ability of heavy metal cadmium and plumbum in rice to transport to brown rice. The concentration of silicon and selenium in brown rice was 2.227–2.550 mg·kg-1 and 0.145–0.176 mg ·kg-1, respectively, which was significantly increased by leaf surface regulation of silicon and selenium fertilizer(P<0.05). Spraying leaf silicon or selenium fertilizer twice or more during rice growth period increased the concentration of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium in brown rice more significantly(P<0.05). According to comprehensive analysis, spraying silicon or selenium twice on the leaves of rice at heading stage and filling stage can reduce the concentration of cadmium and plumbum in brown rice to below the limit value specified in national standard for food safety, and improve the concentration of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium in brown rice, which is operable and has high economic benefits.
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