文章摘要
叶面阻隔联合土壤钝化对水稻镉吸收转运的影响
Effects of foliar fertilizer and passivator application on cadmium accumulation and transport in rice
投稿时间:2019-12-23  
DOI:10.13254/j.jare.2019.0629
中文关键词: 镉,水稻,叶面阻隔,联合修复,硒,硅
英文关键词: cadmium, rice, leaf surface barrier, joint repair, selenium, silicon
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2016YED0800705);广西创新驱动发展科技重大专项(桂科AA17202026);广西重点研发计划项目(桂科AB16380084,桂科AB16380207,桂科AB16380164);广西农业重点科技计划项目(201528,201604);南宁市科学研究与技术开发计划项目(20162105)
作者单位E-mail
谭骏 广西大学资源环境与材料学院, 南宁 530005
广西农业科学院农业资源与环境研究所, 南宁 530007
广西富硒农业研究中心, 南宁 530005 
 
潘丽萍 广西农业科学院农业资源与环境研究所, 南宁 530007
广西富硒农业研究中心, 南宁 530005
广西富硒农产品工程技术研究中心, 南宁 530005 
 
黄雁飞 广西农业科学院农业资源与环境研究所, 南宁 530007
广西富硒农业研究中心, 南宁 530005
广西富硒农产品工程技术研究中心, 南宁 530005 
 
邢颖 广西农业科学院农业资源与环境研究所, 南宁 530007
广西富硒农业研究中心, 南宁 530005
广西富硒农产品工程技术研究中心, 南宁 530005 
 
陈锦平 广西农业科学院农业资源与环境研究所, 南宁 530007
广西富硒农业研究中心, 南宁 530005
广西富硒农产品工程技术研究中心, 南宁 530005 
 
刘永贤 广西大学资源环境与材料学院, 南宁 530005
广西农业科学院农业资源与环境研究所, 南宁 530007
广西富硒农业研究中心, 南宁 530005
广西富硒农产品工程技术研究中心, 南宁 530005
广西植物营养工程技术研究中心, 南宁 530005 
46636049@qq.com 
张超兰 广西大学资源环境与材料学院, 南宁 530005 zhangcl@gxu.edu.cn 
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中文摘要:
      为了探讨叶面阻隔联合钝化对水稻镉吸收转运的影响,实现重金属污染农田稻米安全生产,采用大田试验的方式,选用氨基酸螯合硒营养液肥和活性硅肥作为叶面阻隔剂,硅钙肥和贝壳粉作为土壤钝化剂,在田间共设置7个处理:水稻常规种植(CK),叶面喷施氨基酸螯合硒营养液肥(Se400),叶面喷施活性硅肥(Si1000),叶面喷施氨基酸螯合硒营养液肥的同时分别基施硅钙肥(Se400GG)和贝壳粉(Se400BK),叶面喷施活性硅肥的同时分别基施硅钙肥(Si1000GG)和贝壳粉(Si1000BK)。水稻成熟后对水稻籽粒、颖壳、秸秆、根四部分的镉含量进行检测。结果表明:与对照处理相比,各处理水稻籽粒中镉含量均不同程度降低,且叶面阻隔联合土壤钝化处理的效果更好。Se400GG处理水稻籽粒镉含量下降最明显,降幅为88.13%,水稻籽粒镉含量为(0.18±0.01)mg·kg-1,低于大米镉限量值0.2 mg·kg-1(GB 2762—2017);其次是Si1000GG处理,水稻籽粒镉含量下降了56.77%;单独叶面阻隔的两个处理Si1000和Se400效果较差,水稻籽粒镉含量仅下降了18.28%和9.03%。水稻籽粒镉含量降低的主要原因是水稻各部位的富集系数和转运系数减小,Se400GG和Si1000GG处理水稻根到秸秆的转运系数下降了84.93%和72.60%,水稻籽粒的富集系数下降了87.88%和56.06%,而Se400和Si1000处理水稻根到秸秆的转运系数仅下降46.58%和38.36%,水稻籽粒的富集系数仅下降12.12%和15.91%。可见,叶面阻隔联合钝化技术,尤其是叶面喷施氨基酸螯合硒营养液肥的同时基施硅钙肥能更有效地阻隔水稻对镉的吸收和转运,降低水稻籽粒镉的含量,是值得在镉低污染稻田推广应用的技术。
英文摘要:
      In order to investigate the effect of leaf barrier combined passivation on the accumulation and transport of cadmium in rice, a field experiment was set up in Guangxi Province. In this study, amino acid chelated selenium nutrient liquid fertilizer and active silicon fertilizer were chosen as leaf barrier agents. Calcium silicon fertilizer and shell powder were chosen as soil passivation agents. Seven treatments were set up, as follows:(1)Rice grown conventionally without special treatment(CK); (2)Spraying of 6 000 mL·hm-2 selenium fertilizer at booting stage(Se400); (3)Basal application of 3 000 kg·hm-2 silicon calcium fertilizer and 6 000 mL·hm-2 selenium fertilizer sprayed at booting stage(Se400GG); (4)Basal application of 3 000 kg·hm-2 shell powder and 6 000 mL·hm-2 selenium fertilizer sprayed at booting stage(Se400BK); (5)Spraying of 15 000 mL·hm-2 active silicon fertilizer at booting stage(Si1000);(6)Basal application of 3 000 kg·hm-2 silicon calcium fertilizer and 15 000 mL·hm-2 active silicon fertilizer sprayed at booting stage(Si1000GG); and(7)Basal application of 3 000 kg·hm-2 shell powder and 15 000 mL·hm-2 active silicon fertilizer sprayed at booting stage(Si1000BK). The cadmium content in rice grains, husks, shoots, and roots was determined after harvest. The results showed that compared with CK treatment, all treatments reduced the cadmium content in rice grains to differing degrees, with the effect of the leaf barrier combined with soil passivation being the greatest. The cadmium content in rice grains treated with Se400GG decreased the most, with a decrease of 88.13%; the cadmium content in rice was(0.18±0.01)mg·kg-1, lower than the rice cadmium limit of 0.2 mg·kg-1(GB 2762-2017). The cadmium content in grains decreased by 56.77% after Si1000GG treatment. The two treatments of Si1000 and Se400 with a separate foliar barrier were less effective:the cadmium content in grains only decreased by 18.28% and 9.03%. The main reason why the treatments reduce the content of cadmium in rice grains is that the enrichment and transport coefficients of different parts of the rice are reduced. The root-to-straw transfer factor of Se400GG and Si1000GG treated rice decreased by 84.93% and 72.60%, and the bioconcentration factors of rice grains decreased by 87.88% and 56.06%, while the root-to-straw transfer factor of Se400 and Si1000 treated rice only decreased by 46.58% and 38.36% and the bioconcentration factors of rice decreased by only 12.12% and 15.91%. Leaf barrier combined passivation technology, especially Se400GG, can more effectively block the uptake and transport of cadmium by rice and reduce the content of cadmium in rice grains, which is worthy of being popularized and applied in low-cadmium polluted rice fields.
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