文章摘要
基于发明专利的重金属钝化技术的文献计量分析
Bibliometric analysis of heavy metal passivation technology based on invention patents
投稿时间:2017-09-29  
DOI:10.13254/j.jare.2017.0239
中文关键词: 钝化效果,重金属有效性,钝化剂组合,发明专利,文献计量分析
英文关键词: passivation effect, heavy metal bioavailability, combination of passivating agents, invention patents, bibliometric analysis
基金项目:国家重点研发计划课题(2017YFD0801404,2016YFD0800301);中国科学院青年创新促进会项目(2017073)
作者单位E-mail
秦勇 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所生态系统网络观测与模拟重点实验室, 北京 100101
安徽农业大学资源与环境学院, 合肥 230036 
 
师阿燕 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所生态系统网络观测与模拟重点实验室, 北京 100101
安徽农业大学资源与环境学院, 合肥 230036 
 
徐笠 北京市农林科学院, 北京农业质量标准与检测技术研究中心, 北京 100097  
徐岩 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所生态系统网络观测与模拟重点实验室, 北京 100101
中国科学院大学, 北京 100049 
 
李静 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所生态系统网络观测与模拟重点实验室, 北京 100101
中国科学院大学, 北京 100049 
jingli@igsnrr.ac.cn 
张震 安徽农业大学资源与环境学院, 合肥 230036  
古丛珂 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所生态系统网络观测与模拟重点实验室, 北京 100101
中国科学院大学, 北京 100049 
 
李发东 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所生态系统网络观测与模拟重点实验室, 北京 100101
中国科学院大学, 北京 100049 
lifadong@igsnrr.ac.cn 
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中文摘要:
      降低环境基质中重金属含量及其生物有效性,使重金属从活性较高的形态向活性较低的形态转化,是当前中国农牧业生产及资源利用中亟待解决的一个关键问题。专利文献是技术信息最有效的载体,本文以国家专利局公开的95项重金属钝化专利为依据,对钝化技术发明专利开展了文献计量分析。重金属钝化技术的专利申请数量呈持续增长趋势,并于2014年之后进入快速增长阶段。该技术主要应用领域有土壤、城市污泥和畜禽粪便3种,多数研究属于盆栽试验或批次堆肥实验。无机钝化材料主要通过化学反应和调节土壤中的pH来降低重金属在土壤中的有效浓度;有机钝化技术通过与重金属经化学作用形成不溶性金属-有机复合物,来增加土壤阳离子交换量,以降低重金属的水溶态及可交换态组分,进而降低其生物有效性和可迁移性;而微生物的钝化修复作用还与氧化还原环境有关。不同钝化剂对不同重金属的钝化效果不同,且不同钝化剂优化组合对重金属形态也具有很大影响,在实践中大面积应用面临着较大的困难。借助于材料科学,对高效吸附剂的筛选和分离技术仍需进一步研究和完善。
英文摘要:
      It is a key problem to be solved urgently in the current agricultural production and resource utilization in China, to reduce the content of heavy metals in the environment matrix and its bioavailability by transforming the heavy metal from higher-activity form to less active form. Patent literature is the most effective carrier of technical information. This article took the passivation technology invention patents as research object, and made a bibliometric analysis of 95 patents on passivation of heavy metal disclosed by the State Intellectual Property Office of China. The number of patents on heavy metal passivation technology kept increasing, and entered a period of rapid growth after 2014. Beijing was the main application area. Soils, municipal sludge and livestock manure were the three key application fields. Most studies were pot experiments or batches of composting experiments. The inorganic passivating material mainly reduced the effective concentration of heavy metals in the soil by chemical reactions and adjusting the pH of the soil. Organic passivation technology reduced the water soluble and exchangeable components of heavy metals and reduced their bioavailability and mobility, by chemical actions with heavy metals to form insoluble metal-organic complex, to increase the amount of soil cation exchange. The passivation of microbes was related to the redox environment. The passivating effect of different passivating agents on different heavy metals was different, and the combination of different passivating agents also had a great influence on the morphology of heavy metals. Therefore, large-scale applications faced great difficulties in practice. With the aid of materials science, it still needs further study to refine the efficient adsorbent screening and improve the separation technology.
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