文章摘要
中国主要农作物化肥用量估算
Estimation of Fertilizer Usage from Main Crops in China
投稿时间:2017-03-04  
DOI:10.13254/j.jare.2017.0061
中文关键词: 农作物,化肥用量估算,蔬菜,水果,不同区域
英文关键词: crops, estimation of fertilizer usage, vegetables, fruits, different regions
基金项目:公益性行业(农业)科研专项经费项目(201503121-04);中国农业科学院科技创新工程协同创新任务(CAAS-XTCX2016015);国家重点研发计划支持项目(2016YFD0201009)
作者单位E-mail
侯萌瑶 东北农业大学资源与环境学院, 黑龙江 哈尔滨 150030
农业部环境保护科研监测所, 天津 300191 
 
张丽 东北农业大学资源与环境学院, 黑龙江 哈尔滨 150030
农业部环境保护科研监测所, 天津 300191 
 
王知文 东北农业大学资源与环境学院, 黑龙江 哈尔滨 150030
农业部环境保护科研监测所, 天津 300191 
 
杨殿林 农业部环境保护科研监测所, 天津 300191  
王丽丽 农业部环境保护科研监测所, 天津 300191  
修伟明 农业部环境保护科研监测所, 天津 300191  
赵建宁 农业部环境保护科研监测所, 天津 300191 zhaojn2008@163.com 
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中文摘要:
      为探求和估算我国主要农作物化肥用量,本文分析了30多年来我国农作物化肥使用现状和不同类型农作物的化肥使用情况。结果发现我国农作物化肥使用量增长迅速,从1980年的1 269.4万t增长到2014年的5 995.9万t,增长了4.7倍,年均增长率为4.67%。谷类作物化肥用量仍然是农作物化肥使用总量的主要贡献者,其化肥用量从1980年2 712.41万t增加到2014年的3 415.35万t,但其所占农作物化肥总用量的比重却下降明显,从60.02%(1998年)降至49.75%(2014年)。蔬菜和水果的化肥用量增长最为迅速,其中蔬菜化肥用量1998年为604.51万t,2014年增加到1 291.36万t,增加了2.1倍,其化肥用量占农作物化肥总用量从1998年的13.38%增加至2014年的18.81%;水果化肥用量1998年为531.55万t,至2014年增加到1 223.42万t,增加了2.4倍,其化肥用量占农作物化肥总用量从1998年的11.76%增长到2014年的17.82%。同时,我国不同区域化肥用量差异较大,从化肥施用总量来看,大体上呈现从东到西的递减趋势,其中华东地区和华中地区用量较高,从单位面积化肥用量来看,呈现从东到西递减趋势,同时从南到北也呈现了递减趋势,用量较高区为华南和华东地区。
英文摘要:
      In order to seek and estimate the fertilizer application from main crops in China, this paper analyzed the current use of fertilizer, as well as the use of fertilizer in different crops for more than 30 years. We found that the crop fertilizer usage was growing from 12.694 million tons in 1980 to 59.959 million tons in 2014, with the overall raise of 4.7 times, and an annual growth rate of 4.67%. Fertilizer usage from cereal crop contributed the most to the total use, with the fertilizer application from 27.124 1 million tons in 1980 to 34.153 5 million tons in 2014, but the ratio of its fertilizer usage to the total fertilizer consume from crops in China decreased from 60.02% in 1998 to 49.75% in 2014. The fertilizer application from vegetable and fruit crops grew most rapidly, with an raise of 2.1 times from vegetables crops, increasing from 6.045 1 million tons in 1998 to 12.913 6 million tons in 2014, and its ratio to the total fertilizer application in crops from 13.38% in 1998 to 18.81% in 2014. The fertilizer application from fruit increased from 5.315 5 million tons in 1998 to 12.234 2 million tons in 2014, increasing by 2.4 times compared with that in 1998, and its ratio to the total fertilizer application from crops increased from 11.76% in 1998 to 17.82% in 2014. In addition, according to our study, great regional differences in the gross amount of fertilizer usage were found, with a decreasing trend from east to west, with the highest usage in East China and Central China. In accordance with the per unit use of fertilizer, it decreased from east to west, the same from south to north, with the highest fertilizer application in South China and East China.
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